release time:2022-03-08Author source:SlkorBrowse:1023
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Abstract: The semiconductor industry is the core supporting industry to build China's strategic scientific and technological strength, and the semiconductor parts is the key area to determine the high-quality development of China's semiconductor industry. Although China's semiconductor industry is in the stage of accelerating development, the domestic semiconductor parts industry is still facing many problems, such as low localization rate, insufficient long-term support and investment, weak independent innovation ability of enterprises, poor upstream and downstream cooperation of the industry, lack of talent training and incentive mechanism. This paper will comprehensively summarize the development characteristics and key enterprises of the global semiconductor parts industry, study the market size and development pattern at home and abroad, and put forward relevant development suggestions for the main problems facing the domestic semiconductor parts industry at present.
Semiconductor parts refer to those parts that meet the requirements of semiconductor equipment and technology in terms of material, structure, process, quality and accuracy, reliability and stability. Such as O-Ring sealing Ring, EFEM (transmission module), RF Gen RF power supply, ESC electrostatic suction cup, Si silicon Ring and other structural parts, Pump vacuum Pump, MFC gas flowmeter, precision bearings, ShowerHead gas spray head. Semiconductor equipment consists of thousands of parts, the performance, quality and precision of parts directly determine the reliability and stability of the equipment, is also the key basic elements in China's semiconductor manufacturing capacity to high-end jump. The domestic semiconductor parts industry started late, the overall level of the semiconductor parts industry in China is low, the supply capacity of high-end products is insufficient, and the problem of poor product reliability, stability and consistency is increasingly prominent. In increasingly complex global macro political and economic, the suppression of containment strategy under the background of the rise of high technology industry in China is thetime "phenomenon is more prominent, which not only restricted to the development of high-grade high-end semiconductor industry in China, to the digital economy in China, the people's livelihood economy and national defense security also brings the risk of cannot be underestimated.
02 Main classification and main characteristics of semiconductor parts
(1) Main classification of semiconductor parts
Semiconductor parts are the key components of semiconductor equipment. According to incomplete statistics, the classification of semiconductor parts in the industry has not yet formed a standard, and there are mainly the following classification methods.
According to the internal process of typical IC equipment cavity, parts can be divided into five categories: power supply and radio frequency control, gas transport, vacuum control, temperature control, transmission device. The power supply and rf control category includes RF generator and matcher, DC/AC power supply, etc. Gas transportation mainly includes flow controllers, pneumatic components, gas filters and so on. Vacuum control category includes dry pump/cold pump/molecular pump and other vacuum pumps, control valve/pendulum valve and other valves, pressure gauge and O-ring seal Ring. Temperature control includes heating plates/static cups, heat exchangers and lifting components. Transmission devices include mechanical arm, EFEM, bearing, precision track, stepper motor, etc.
According to the main materials and functions of semiconductor parts, they can be divided into twelve categories, including silicon/silicon carbide parts, quartz parts, ceramic parts, metal parts, graphite parts, plastic parts, vacuum parts, seals, filtration parts, moving parts, electronic control parts and other parts. Among them, various categories of parts also include a number of subdivided products, such as vacuum parts, including vacuum gauge (measuring process vacuum), vacuum pressure gauge, gas flow meter (MFC), vacuum valve, vacuum pump and other key parts.
According to the service objects of semiconductor parts, semiconductor core parts can be divided into two types, namely precision machine parts and general purchased parts . Precision machine parts are usually designed by the engineers of each semiconductor equipment company, and then outsourced processing, will only be used for their own company's equipment, such as process chamber, transmission chamber, etc., relatively easy to domestication, generally on its surface treatment, precision machining and other technology requirements are high; General purchased parts are some general parts that have been verified for a long time and widely recognized by many equipment factories and manufacturers. They are more standardized and will be used by different equipment companies and also used as spare parts and consumables in the production line. For example, silicon structural parts, O-Ring sealing Ring, valves, gauges, pumps, Face plate, gas Shower head, etc., are difficult to be localized due to their strong versatility and consistency, and need to be certified by equipment and manufacturing line.
Table 1-1 summarizes the major component products and semiconductor devices that are used in a large number of devices and production lines.
Table 1-1. Main components and semiconductor equipment for main services
(Data source: Network information collation)
According to the VLSI data in Figure 2-1, the total market share of the top ten suppliers tends to be stable at about 50% in the past 10 years. But due to the strict requirements of semiconductor components for precision and quality, in terms of a single semiconductor components, the world is only a few suppliers can provide products, it also led to the although semiconductor components around the industry concentration ratio is only 50%, but category segment concentration often above 80% to 90%, monopoly effect is obvious. For example, in the field of electrostatic sucker, it is basically dominated by American and Japanese semiconductor enterprises (see Table 2-2), accounting for more than 95% of the market share, mainly including AMAT (Applied Materials), LAM (Panlin Group), and Shinko (Nippon Electric), TOTO and NTK (Japanese enterprises).
Figure 2-1. The market share of the world's top 10 semiconductor component manufacturers remains stable at around 50% (data source: VLSI)
Table 2-2. List of global leaders in major component products
(Data source: Jiangfeng Electronics, network information collation)
04 The main problems of semiconductor parts localization
(1) Lack of attention to parts and components, industrial support policies out of place
The total scale of the semiconductor parts industry is in the billions. Compared with the core industrial chain of semiconductors, the volume is smaller, the product varieties and specifications are various, the leading enterprises are few, the industrial concentration is low, and the existing technical problems are scattered, so it has not been paid enough attention for a long time. Since 2014 in our country will promote the development of semiconductor industry rose to national strategy, then at least more than 30 local government introduced a policy support to promote the development of semiconductor industry , but both national and local level, the policy focus more on the design, manufacture, testing, equipment, materials, semiconductor parts industry rarely covered. In terms of capital, parts and components enterprises are rarely favored by capital. The national IC Industry Investment Fund currently invests less than 100 million yuan in semiconductor parts. By the end of 2020, the total market value of listed companies mainly engaged in semiconductor parts (less than 30 billion yuan) only accounts for 1% of the total market value of all semiconductor industry chain enterprises (more than 3 trillion yuan).
(2) Relatively backward innovation ability and obvious gap in core technology
Because parts industry had not received attention for a long time, can only vulgar growth, so most of the domestic parts enterprises into the semiconductor industry is mainly to provide repair and replacement services, cleaning services is given priority to, the overall r&d, innovation ability is relatively backward, long stay at the levels of low-end production standard and copy foreign products, the core technology gap is obvious. According to the prospectus of a listed semiconductor parts company in China, there are only 15 r&d personnel, and the total r&d investment from 2016 to 2018 is less than 20 million yuan, and the average annual r&d investment intensity is less than 5%. In addition, the lack of innovation ability of China's semiconductor parts industry is also reflected in the imperfect industry standard system, the serious shortage of investment in basic process research, the lack of access to process technology, the lack of close combination of scientific research and production practice and many other problems. It restricts the innovative development of structural design technology, reliability technology, manufacturing technology and process, and basic material performance research of semiconductor components.
Table 2-4 main domestic semiconductor components technical difficulties
(Data source: SMIC , Jiangfeng Electronics , network information processing）
(3) Insufficient supply of craftsmen and lack of effective incentive mechanism
At present, the talent gap in China's semiconductor industry has reached hundreds of thousands of people. Although China has introduced a series of support measures in semiconductor talent training in recent years, a large number of semiconductor talent training mainly focuses on design, manufacturing, equipment and materials, and there is still a lack of attention to the talent training in semiconductor parts and other basic industries. In the basic subjects of education system reform, professional Settings, on-the-job accreditation of engineering education, technology, etc the lack of overall planning and enforcement, parts and components to a serious shortage of professional basic and professional skills curriculum, but also the lack of advocating refinement, truth-seeking, innovation, good at design, good at crucial craftsman spiritual guide . In addition, the semiconductor parts industry is facing serious talent incentive mechanism is not in place. Although the overall salary level of domestic semiconductor industry personnel has been significantly improved compared with the previous, but for the mechanical processing, precision instruments, surface treatment and other industries required by parts and components enterprises, the salary of employees is generally significantly lower than the average level of the semiconductor industry. According to the prospectus of a semiconductor parts company in China, it only had 15 r&d staff before going public, and the annual salary of core technical staff was only 75,000 yuan and that of ordinary r&d staff only 30,000 yuan. The low salary level leads to serious brain drain of semiconductor parts companies, resulting in a vicious circle of lack of successors in the basic parts industry.
(4) Disjointed links of industrial chain and insufficient upstream support capacity
Semiconductor components need to undergo rigorous and complex verification procedures before they can be verified by large-scale production lines and sold on a large scale. Therefore, component manufacturers need to fully cooperate with downstream equipment and manufacturers. At present, the on-line verification procedure of semiconductor parts in China is complicated and the process is long. The coordination degree between manufacturers, equipment manufacturers and domestic semiconductor parts manufacturers is not high, and there is a lack of effective communication and interaction. As a result, both parties do not master each other's process parameters and matching ability, and the domestic substitute power is insufficient. In addition, in the process of long-term product iteration, existing foreign component manufacturers have formed a large number of know-how. However, in the subsequent imitation and trial production process, domestic manufacturers can only achieve similar appearance. Due to lack of experience and key technologies, they are eliminated in the initial verification and cannot enter large-scale application . In addition, domestic semiconductor component manufacturers cannot obtain support from raw materials and production equipment and other supporting links, which also affects the competitiveness of their products. Semiconductor parts are generally a variety of products with high processing accuracy requirements, which require high raw materials and processing equipment for the production of these parts and are expensive. Due to the influence of the long-formed idea of "heavy mainframe, light supporting", China's industry has seriously insufficient investment in the upstream and downstream supporting fields of parts, leading to the gap between China and foreign countries in the raw materials and production equipment of parts. For example, the high precision machining center commonly used in semiconductor metal parts in China lags behind foreign countries in machining accuracy, machining stability, geometric flexibility and other aspects. For example, aluminum alloy, tungsten and molybdenum, as well as high purity quartz sand, the raw materials for high-end metal parts manufacturing, are basically monopolized by American and Japanese companies. The monopolistic supply of raw materials makes downstream material suppliers/processors/users limited to passive. The main quartz glass material (tube/rod/anchorage) is also from the United States, Germany, Japan companies. For a long time, the lack of upstream processing equipment and raw materials has led to the operation of most semiconductor parts enterprises in China at a low technical level. The level of raw materials and process equipment is not high, and advanced equipment is lacking and not matched, which cannot guarantee the consistency of product quality and affects the improvement of product quality.
(5) Limited manufacturing conditions affect high-end upgrading
As the semiconductor manufacturing process is often in high temperature, strong corrosive environment, so about half of the semiconductor parts need to do surface treatment to improve their corrosion resistance. For example, the plasma etching chamber of semiconductor etching equipment is in a high density, high corrosion and high activity plasma environment. The chamber and its components are easily corroded by plasma. In order to prolong the service life of these components, anodic oxidation is often used on the surface of aluminum base materials (aluminum and aluminum alloy). The plasma can effectively reduce the corrosion of the cavity and other aluminum base materials. And China's increasingly stringent environmental requirements, for the majority of surface treatment technology such as sand blasting, spray, electroplating, anode oxidation and so on controlled development, resulting in some high-end surface treatment technology, for example micro-arc oxidation, high-end spraying, Y2O3 ceramic coatings, etc., domestic gap bigger all the time, also directly affect the parts performance and quality of products, Although Chinese manufacturers can shape Valve parts, Showerhead gas spray heads, Ceramic parts and other parts according to the drawings, their development is restricted by the foundation because they cannot solve the problems of materials and surface treatment. In addition, some cutting-edge technologies of semiconductor components are limited by the "embargo", and domestic enterprises lack drawings and precision data, which prevents them from evolving to high-end technologies. For example, low-voltage vacuum gauge produced by MKS has always had to apply for export license to purchase .
05 Suggestions on the development of semiconductor parts industry in China
(1) Attach importance to top-level design and guide industrial development
The semiconductor parts sector, which has long relied heavily on advanced countries such as the United States and Japan, needs to pay more attention to top-level design. Suggested by making a special semiconductor components industry development plan, the plan or roadmap, determine the long-term strategic framework of industry development, and in different periods according to the development situation at home and abroad to set up the appropriate policies and programmes to orderly guide industry development, also caused the whole society especially the marketization of capital of semiconductor components industry attention.
(2) Set up special industrial projects to stimulate innovation
In order to realize the rapid development and prosperity of semiconductor parts industry, the most fundamental is to enhance the ability of independent innovation. At present, China's semiconductor parts industry can not achieve a comprehensive guarantee of semiconductor supply chain only by imitation and tracking technology, only through independent innovation. Although some parts enterprises have been supported in special 02 , further efforts should be made. Recommended in the national science and technology plan separately established a special semiconductor parts industry, joint domestic semiconductor components leading enterprises, the parts of the national institutes of technology innovation platform or preparing to construct, gather strengths targeting breakthrough point and main direction, adhere to independent innovation research and development, strive to overcome a batch of key core technology industrial base, We will establish a technological innovation system in which enterprises play the leading role and the enterprises, universities, research institutes and applications are combined, and guide the research and development of cutting-edge technologies, basic technologies and key generic technologies in the field of semiconductor components at the national level.
(3) Making up policy gaps and strengthening investment guidance
Semiconductor parts industry is an industry with full market competition. Due to the small scale, large quantity and thin product profit of domestic parts enterprises, the r&d investment of new products and technologies cannot be compared with that of international large enterprises, so it is difficult to win by market competition alone. However, under the current international geopolitical background, it is necessary for the government to implement relevant special policies to guide and support, and help domestic semiconductor parts enterprises to grow rapidly. It is suggested that major products independently developed by domestic semiconductor parts enterprises should be subsidized and supported by national and local finance, intellectual property rights protection of independently designed products should be strengthened, and semiconductor parts should be included in the government's procurement catalogue for the first set. Encourage all kinds of domestic industrial funds and social capital to actively invest in semiconductor parts enterprises, and help the development of domestic semiconductor parts enterprises through the capital market.
4) Increase talent introduction and training and strengthen talent supply
Comprehensively strengthen the cultivation and introduction of engineering, research and compound talents in semiconductor parts related fields . Large research institutions are encouraged to establish postgraduate education and post-doctoral workstations in the field of semiconductor parts and components, and rely on major national engineering projects and major science and technology projects to train leading talents in semiconductor parts and components engineering and technology. We advocate enterprises, schools and scientific research institutions to jointly carry out vocational education and on-the-job training, actively promote the mode of school-enterprise cooperation to jointly cultivate skilled personnel, through school-enterprise order education, centralized training, directional training or entrusted training, a large number of skilled personnel of semiconductor parts, strengthen talent supply. We will actively introduce overseas engineering technology leaders and talents in short supply through various means, encourage local governments to introduce talent policies for core technology backbone and leading entrepreneurs in the field of semiconductor components, constantly improve the talent incentive mechanism, and stimulate the vitality of industrial development.
(5) Promote the linkage of parts and ensure independent supply
Promote semiconductor based supply chain part "linkage" and completely reverse disconnect parts products and equipment, manufacturing, through the government guidance, encourage domestic fabs and equipment factory to play to the role of the large production line organization and coordination, collaborative local parts makers through JieBang 1, horse racing, directional research in a variety of ways, such as strengthen the cooperation of industry chain, Realize the coordinated development of mainframe and basic parts. Support semiconductor manufacturing or equipment engineering projects led by national or local governments, give priority to domestic semiconductor parts product verification opportunities, and give certain risk subsidies. Encourage machinery, electronics, chemical and other equipment parts manufacturers to actively expand and expand semiconductor business, based on their own technical basis, develop higher-end products to meet the needs of semiconductor equipment, further consolidate and improve product layout, and enhance the independent supply of domestic parts.
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