release time:2022-03-17Author source:SlkorBrowse:800
In 1947, American physicists shockley, Badin and bratton jointly invented the transistor, a semiconductor solid element with three pivots.
Because transistors have the characteristics of low power consumption, small size, relatively cheap price and flexible connection mode, after the advent of transistors, many functions that could not be realized before have been realized in electronic circuits, especially pulse circuits and digital circuits. Let's take a look. The following video is intuitive and thorough, and it is an excellent work for learning popular science. I suggest you have a look (with translation)!(Video source: TEDEd, translation: @ turboxiaozhou)
Chip cross section
This is the cross-sectional view of the CPU. You can clearly see the layered CPU structure. The chip is arranged in a hierarchical way. This CPU has about 10 layers. The lowest layer is the device layer, which is the MOSFET transistor.
When the Mos tube is enlarged in the chip, a three-dimensional structure like a "platform" can be seen, and the transistor has no inductance, resistance and other devices which are easy to generate heat. The top layer is a low-resistance electrode, which is separated from the lower platform by an insulator. Generally, P-type or N-type polysilicon is used as the raw material of the gate, and the lower insulator is silicon dioxide.
The two sides of the platform are the source and drain by adding impurities, and their positions can be interchanged. The distance between them is the channel, which determines the characteristics of the chip.
Chip with 2.6 trillion transistors, from Cerebras Systems
Of course, the transistors in the chip are not only Mos transistors, but also tri-gate transistors. The transistors are not installed, but carved when the chip is manufactured.
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