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3D animation explanation: The working principle of the transistor was finally shocked. Essence

release time:2022-03-17Author source:SlkorBrowse:1153

In 1947, American physicists shockley, Badin and bratton jointly invented the transistor, a semiconductor solid element with three pivots.

图片

Because transistors have the characteristics of low power consumption, small size, relatively cheap price and flexible connection mode, after the advent of transistors, many functions that could not be realized before have been realized in electronic circuits, especially pulse circuits and digital circuits. Let's take a look. The following video is intuitive and thorough, and it is an excellent work for learning popular science. I suggest you have a look (with translation)!(Video source: TEDEd, translation: @ turboxiaozhou)


The following animation is made by LearnEngineering. In the video, we can learn the working principle of the transistor intuitively. The transistor has three poles; The three poles of bipolar transistor are composed of Emitter, Base and Collector of N-type and P-type respectively; The three poles of a field effect transistor are Source, Gate and Drain.
Transistors mainly include MOSFET, IGBT, Bipolar transistor bipolar (also called triode), etc. In terms of the market competition pattern of these three transistors, the market of triodes is relatively scattered. Because of their low price, there is still a certain demand in a few applications such as price-sensitive and inductive load-driven. However, due to the high power consumption of triodes and other problems, in the global environment of energy conservation and emission reduction, its market scale tends to decline, and it is being replaced by MOSFET.
       

Chip cross section


  Transistor is the core component of electronic circuit. Mainstream transistors include MOSFET and IGBT. The former has the characteristics of simple driving, good high-frequency characteristics and bidirectional conductivity. It is mainly used in high-frequency and low-power working environments, and is widely used in the fields of consumer electronics, communication, industrial control and automotive electronics. IGBT has the characteristics of high switching frequency, high voltage resistance and changeable voltage. It is mainly suitable for low-frequency and high-power working environment, and is widely used in inverter, frequency converter, power switch and other fields. It is called "CPU" of electronic industry.
 
There can be more than 10 billion transistors in the chip. How can so many transistors exist? When the chip is constantly enlarged, we see a miracle: this is a Top-down View SEM photo, which can clearly see the layered structure inside the CPU. The lower the line width, the narrower it is, and the closer it is to the device layer.


This is the cross-sectional view of the CPU. You can clearly see the layered CPU structure. The chip is arranged in a hierarchical way. This CPU has about 10 layers. The lowest layer is the device layer, which is the MOSFET transistor.

   


When the Mos tube is enlarged in the chip, a three-dimensional structure like a "platform" can be seen, and the transistor has no inductance, resistance and other devices which are easy to generate heat. The top layer is a low-resistance electrode, which is separated from the lower platform by an insulator. Generally, P-type or N-type polysilicon is used as the raw material of the gate, and the lower insulator is silicon dioxide.


The two sides of the platform are the source and drain by adding impurities, and their positions can be interchanged. The distance between them is the channel, which determines the characteristics of the chip.


Chip with 2.6 trillion transistors, from Cerebras Systems


Of course, the transistors in the chip are not only Mos transistors, but also tri-gate transistors. The transistors are not installed, but carved when the chip is manufactured.




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